Historically, there has been a predisposition to explain changes as sudden revolutions, behind which a necessary idea of progress and an inevitable path towards more complex society and economy was justified. This paradigm has been shifting in recent decades, and other concepts such as resilience and adaptability may be more comprehensive in exploring how agricultural and non-agricultural production systems behave in different societies over time. Revolutions are more usually cumulative processes, which need to leaven beforehand, and which take time, long time. By its multiproxy nature, archaeological and historical research, encompassing disciplines such as archaeobotany and environmental history, among others, is a field suitable for multiscale research of agriculture, wild resources management and human-plant agency in the long term, providing refined and more nuanced narratives about social and economic concerns. Ethnobotanical research has a long-term relationship with small-scale farmers that has develop towards a situation where Archaeology and History are willing to engage in the exchange of peasant agroecological knowledge based on the peasant-to-peasant methodology. This session welcomes contributions that bring new insights into the concepts of evolution, adaptation, and resilience; presentations that trigger new narratives on how humans drove their relationships with plants, but also how, based on past or present-day experiences, archaeological, historical and/or traditional knowledge can contribute towards sustainability and food sovereignty today.